The Evolution of Automobiles


Automobiles are wheeled motor vehicles that have four wheels and seating for one to eight people. They provide comfort and luxury to their occupants, and enable them to perform a wide range of tasks. Whether used for daily transportation or long distance travel, automobiles have become an essential part of modern life.

Vehicles with four wheels

Vehicles with four wheels can help you navigate rough terrain. While many people associate four-wheel drive with off-road vehicles, the technology is also used on paved roads. For example, a four-wheel drive vehicle can help you keep control in snowy weather.

Development of external combustion engines

External combustion engines are fuel-efficient vehicles that run on air. They reduce the amount of harmful emissions that are emitted from internal combustion engines. The combustion products are relatively cold, at temperatures between 800 and 1300 K for full loads. In addition, the coefficient of excess air during combustion is very low, making these vehicles extremely eco-friendly.

Changes in controls

Controls in automobiles have undergone a dramatic evolution in recent decades. From simple engine controls and clutch pedals to complex on-board computers, today’s vehicles feature a range of sophisticated systems. Some of these include air conditioning, on-board computers, touchscreen panels, and navigation systems.

Seat belts

Seat belts are used in automobiles to protect occupants during a collision. This safety measure is increasing in popularity because of the rising number of road casualties. Modern technologies have the potential to improve the safety of occupants by enhancing traffic conditions and roadway infrastructure. Moreover, the introduction of the global framework plan for improving road safety is also expected to stimulate growth in the global automotive seat belt market.

Safety standards

A car’s safety is a major concern for everyone, and the automotive industry is not an exception. Various laws and regulations are designed to protect passengers. Whether it is the design of the vehicle, or its controls, safety standards are crucial to keeping people safe.


Automobile shapes are an integral part of a car’s design. While some are generic, many are specific to a specific brand or model. The shapes of a car are determined by the materials and design principles used in the vehicle. Many cars feature a streamlined design to reduce wind resistance. Some designs feature freeform shapes to reduce drag.


The price of automobiles is a very important consideration for consumers. Since the mid-2008 recession, prices have been more volatile, both for new and used cars. During this time, prices for new and used cars rose and fell dramatically. For example, between October 2007 and November 2009, the price of used cars increased while the price of new cars dropped. Similarly, the prices of leased cars declined between June 2008 and September 2009, but then increased again between October 2009 and September 2011.


The United States government has stepped in to improve the safety of automobiles. The Ribicoff Forum and Nelson’s constituent letter spurred a lot of research into this issue. It eventually led to a federal law that required the government to set safety standards for all automobiles sold in the United States. This was a significant shift from the previous hands-off approach to automobile safety. Politicians realized that improving automobile safety was good for the nation.


The current rates of taxes on automobiles in India range from 29 percent to 50 percent, depending on the model and engine capacity of the vehicle. In addition, the applied duty depends on whether the car is a passenger vehicle or an SUV.